Behaviour Change Support Systems

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Behaviour Change Support Systems

Systems that help a user change their behaviour.

Formal: A behavior change support system (BCSS) is a sociotechnical information system with psychological and behavioral outcomes designed to form, alter or reinforce attitudes, behaviors or an act of complying without using coercion or deception.

background

Theories have been created that are useful for understanding behavioural intentions. The theories can be used to push systems in directions, causing users to interact with them differently.

Intended outcome and change

Even though there may be no desire to influence people, there are always effects from a system on people. This effect can be analysed or predicted beforehand. FAR-outcome and CBA-change.

FAR-outcome

Forming; formulation of a pattern for a situation where no pattern existed before. Altering; a pattern is changed. Reinforcing; strengthening or a pattern.

CBA-change

Compliance; making sure an action is done by the user. Behaviour; create an enduring change, instead of a few times. Attitude; rather than behaviour change, attitude is changed.

Understanding the behaviour (lec2)

Design stages for behaviour change

1. Understand: how the mind makes decisions (lecture 2)

 Understand how we make decisions, CREATE, strategies for behaviour change.

2. Discover: The goal of the product and who the target users are (lecture 6) 3. Design: Build the product around those goals and users (lecture 7) 4. Refine: Benchmark impact, find bottlenecks, improve 8B0yL8U.png

How do we make decisions

There are two systems in humans, one that is automatic (system 1) and one that thinks about actions (system 2).

There are some mechanisms that introduce cognitive bias. Anchoring: where experience is used as a basis for estimations. Attention bias: perception is affected by thoughts (anxiousness -> threat stimuli). Availability heuristics: mental shortcuts for immediate examples.

Hooked model

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Action funnel

The action funnel is gone through from start through finish, customers could be lost on every step, if they lose interest.

1. Cue: trigger 2. Reaction: initial idea & feeling (system 1 reaction) 3. Evaluation: conscious evaluation (system 2, habit? skip step) 4. Ability: feasible? 5. Timing: good moment?

The funnel can be navigated more easily with some strategies. You could **cheat** and only ask for consent, all other steps will be irrelevant. You can also **make or change habits**, which targets system 1.

Studying the users

DECIDE

An acronym that helps explore the context

- Define the problem 
- Explore the context 
- Craft the intervention  
- Implement within the product  
- Determine the impact  
- Evaluate next steps


Transtheoretical model

In this model, we define 6 phases:

- pre-contemplation
- contemplation
- preparation
- action
- maintenance
- termination


In the first phase, pre-contemplation do not consider taking action at all. People are demotivated after failed attempts or are not informed about negatives. They act resistant to change or avoid the subject.

The second phase, contemplation, is where the user starts thinking about an action. They are aware of the pros and cons.

In preparation, people start gather information, start drawing up plans.

The action phase is where people undergo action, within 6 months. After 6 months they move to the next phase. In the action phase, there is no habit yet.

In the maintenance phase, it is important to think about relapse prevention. It can take up to 5 years. People have modified their lifestyle.

The termination phase means the behaviour is automatic.

Technology adoption lifecycle

There are multiple stages in the adoption of technology. The adoption rate is according to the diffusion process, where multiple groups of people join or start using technology at different stages. This is called the diffusion process.

The first stage, innovation (innovators) is when new ideas practices or objects are introduced. Characteristics are: advantage over existing products, compatibility with values and experience is high, easy to understand (not complex), there should be and option to trial (trialability) and finally observability, benefits should be visible.