Index

go to markdown file

14 mar (writing paper)

vm secure env:

scholar terms: safe code virtual environment http://llvm.org/pubs/2007-SOSP-SVA.pdf

There might be more to write about in my 'existing TEEs' section. However, the main bases have been covered.

11 mar (more TEEs)

more from this paper. It tries to establish some definition for TEE, which has not been done properly/consistently yet.

Groups like Open Mobile Terminal Platform(OMTP) and GlobalPlatform have attempted to define the term, but there is no official standard.

Here are some more terms for the concept map.

    TEE -> SEE
        -> Andix OS
        -> TLK(NVidia)
        -> TLG(Microsoft)
        -> SafeG(Nagoya)

10 mar (TEEs)

the keep
enigma

This paper might be helpful for defining trust.

Trustee - vicrey auction on eth
platforms sc
https://blog.wavesplatform.com/waves-smart-contracts-what-to-expect-and-when-489563a95ca3
Sanctum decouples HW protection from trust. (indepth talk)

Intel SGX, sMPC & ZKP

sgx seems to be unsafe; source.

nokia ObC

Google scolar search : trusted execution environment
TEEs paper

V3c trustworthy data analytics Sgx scholar Terms; trustworthy cloud computing > Towards a Trust Management System for Cloud Computing Sla? Homomorphic encryption Medium: introduction to privacy preserving sc

concept map expansions:

    secure computing -> secure hardware(TEE)-> Intel SGX
                                            -> Sanctum
                                            -> Nokia ObC
                     -> secure code
                     -> secure environments -> hypervisors
                                            -> AMD SEV
                     -> integrity
                     -> confidentiality

Microsoft paper on SDL

blockchain trustworthy privacy.

A solution for storing (encrypted) data on blockchains. Could use Multi-party computation (MPC) to evaluate functions, after using Shamir's secret sharing. See Ch V sec A

cc shows several security aspects of trust in cloud computing. They present a model which lets cloud providers offer their services with clearer way of communicating their trustworthyness than an SLA. Probably handy to use for writing a bit about "what is trust".

cc2

Types of trusted computing:

Safe 'area' of the CPU, hardware encrypted. (intel sgx). some use cases download link

cloud - safe execution, but trusting the cloud provider:

The trust on the cloud provider may be relinquished when homomorphic encryption can be used with data manipulation.

good keypoints for building a TEE - keystone project

implementation of a blockchain system (not very relevant to research)


7 mar (paper and oracles)

1 Bartoletti, Massimo, and Livio Pompianu. "An empirical analysis of smart contracts: platforms, applications, and design patterns." International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security. Springer, Cham, 2017.

There were 811 contracts samples of Eth, and 23 of Bitcoin on 1/1/2017. Most contracts are financial, also a substantial amount are notary (mostly Ethereum). Then there are some games, libraries(for use in other contracts math/string OPs) and wallets.

1 says that the most common oracle is Oraclize. Oracles are interfaces between contracts and the outside.

Since contracts must be deterministic, the only ways to get a random value in a contract are through oracles, or locally on the user's machine.


Survey of attacks on eth. smart contracts:

King of the Ether throne, Ponzi schemes..


Introduction

problem: Are smart contracts important? Problem with smart contracts? Are they just now becoming (more) relevant and why?
aim: What will this change in blockchain applications? How do we shine new light on smart contracts and why is this useful?
structure: see outline on drive..

5 mar (how to write a paper & reseach)

We might be able to create a graphical abstract

How to read a paper might be useful.

PDF about writing a paper (nice).

This pdf explains the way to write a paper, we can use these techniques.

main takeaway:

  1. Don’t wait: write
  2. Identify your key idea
  3. Tell a story
  4. Nail your contributions
  5. Related work: later
  6. Put your readers first (examples)
  7. Listen to your readers

Research..

didnt check this one yet: https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.tudelft.idm.oclc.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=8634961
source: scopus query: ( TITLE-ABS-KEY ( smart AND contract ) ) AND ( platforms ) 3rd res

also didnt check https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.tudelft.idm.oclc.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=8394569
source: ieeexplore query: smart contract platforms

Study on smart contract research. Seems very useful. found on Scopus, query: ( TITLE-ABS-KEY ( smart AND contract ) ) AND ( ( ( platforms ) ) AND ( randomness ) ) AND ( survey )

https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.tudelft.idm.oclc.org/Xplore/home.jsp

3 mar (topic and smart contract env)

Blockchains and Smart Contracts for the Internet of Things Legal enforceability of smart contracts is limited. Work is being done [84]) to make the technical rules of smart contracts legally enforceable and binding to all parties.

search: ("smart contract" "applications" "consensus" "transactions" "future") google scholar

overview of smart contracts

overview of blockchain

search ^ + "traditional"

Understanding Modern Banking Ledgers through Blockchain Technologies: Future of Transaction Processing and Smart Contracts on the Internet of Money

smart contract Triplicate

lottery, cant read?

Research question directions:

smart contracts:

1 mar (not much)

read Blockchain challenges and opportunities: a survey

26/27 feb (smart contract platforms)

Smart contract platforms

look into: bitshares, hyperledger

Ethereum..

EOS paper

About

The EOS blockchain claims to be capable of millions of transactions per second. Block production is done by picking 21 producers every 0.5 seconds. 21 unique producers will be picked 6 times per round. So a consensus is arrived at every 3 seconds. Token holders cast their vote on which candidates in the network they trust as a producer.

Features

Codius

About

Stellar (Ripple Fork) (paper)

About

Stellar consensus protocol(SCP) gives each node freedom to choose other nodes which it trusts.

Features

conclusion

I believe both EOS and Stellar are capable of multi-currency transactions. Where two people can trade different currencies seamlessly.


25/26 feb (initial research)

Evolution of Ethereum

related devcon talk

Ethereum has four main stages planned. Three of which have already been (partially) implemented. Each hard stage is released with a hard fork, changing the functionality of contracts. These changes are not backward compatable. The four stages are codenamed Frontier, Homestead, Metropolis, and Serenity. Some of these stages contain subreleases, like with Metropolis. Byzantium, which has already been released in 2017 and Constantinople, due to be released this week, 28 feb. It has been postponed before for security reasons.

Ethereum challenges for Constantinople & further

Major challenges in Ethereum are: privacy (decentralization), security and scalability. Two of these are "easily" solvable, but it is harder to solve all three. The biggest flaw of most blockchains is that they are as fast as their individual nodes. This causes a huge bottleneck when a blockchain grows large. To solve the trilemma, Ethereum can sharded into multiple systems of nodes. The approach they want to take is called quadratic sharding. Each node works on the shard-network it is interested in, and the combination of all shard-networks. Therefore, it takes quadratic time to add a block. This sharded Ethereum would allow for many more transactions per second, allowing a more wide-spread adoption.

Also good to know about: Ethereum Casper ..expand on casper..

casper ffg https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.09437.pdf

About sharding (Ethereum wiki on sharding)

Sharding is the act of splitting up a resource to increase its speed. For instance, a large database can be split into multiple databases and scaled across multiple servers. The same principle can be used with Ethereum. See Evolution of Ethereum.


24 feb (initial research)

Proof of Stake

A security deposit is made by all validators -> if you submit an invalid block, your deposit will be taken. Earlier versions of PoS only required people to own the currency. This ownership was taken as the "stake". However, using this method, attackers could submit false blocks without risking anything. The idea was that when someone had an investment in a currency, their own wealth would be compromised. Since you have more at stake when you have more wealth, this is considered proof of stake.

When paying (yourself) as result of a stake, the coin age is consumed. This is desired, since it stops PoS from favouring people with a high coin age to win consecutively and therefore, decentralizing the network.

Proof of Stake still requires the Proof of Work mechanism, to allow coins to enter the circulation. Since there are not enough coins owned by various in the early stages of a coin, the coins need to be minted(and transactions verified) in an alternative fashion. After a good distribution has been achieved, the proof-of-work can be replaced by the stake.

IPFS - InterPlanetary FileSystem

IPFS allows for sharing files on a global scale without a centralized server. Files are mostly not stored as a whole, but are distributed. A file, larger than the maximum chunk size, will be split up in several pieces. The pieces have a name, hash and a size..